Monday, February 10, 2020

Radiation Exposure from Chernobyl and Fukushima Case Study

Radiation Exposure from Chernobyl and Fukushima - Case Study Example In the case of Fukushima, an earthquake and tsunami struck the Fukushima Daiichi reactors and led to electricity loss on the site. This resulted in a momentary halt of the cooling of the fuel in the reactor cores. Hydrogen buildup in the three power plants led to an explosion. However, the amount of radiation released in Fukushima was less and could not compare to that of Chernobyl. The Japanese government explained that by reaching a â€Å"cold shutdown condition,† it showed stabilization of coolant temperature and the halt of further release of radiation from the site. Nonetheless, both accidents have health impact on the affected populations; however, the degree of the impact varies with the different radiation exposure levels in the two cases. According to (Elliott 89), the 2011 nuclear accident at Fukushima and the 1986 situation at Chernobyl are both rated 7 on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale, even though these happened differently. Chernobyl regis tered the most health effects as 28 reactor staff and emergency workers, who were highly exposed to radiation, succumbed to thermal and radiation burns after four months of the accident. By the end of 2004, 19 more were reported to have lost their lives. It is also widely believed that the incident caused about 4,000 cases of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, in Japan, no deaths have been linked to the radiation exposure. The difference in radiation release in the two cases is responsible for the varying impacts. For instance, Fukushima radiation release was almost10 percent of that from Chernobyl. At Chernobyl, the explosion of the reactor led to a fire that lasted for ten days. The explosion at Fukushima was due to Hydrogen buildup and did not involve the reactors themselves (Bortz 41). In the case of Fukushima, the magnitude of harm caused by radiation exposure is uncertain, since the event is still fresh, unlike Chernobyl, which occurred a quarter century ago. Since Chernobyl i ncidence occurred years back, it has given an opportunity for medical researchers to determine the health impact of the radiation exposure. However, there are also potential health effects, which will be presented by the Fukushima radiation exposure in the future; it is just a matter of time. Most concerns arising from radiation exposure mainly base on the risk posed to the broader public. During such radiation, people outside and close to the plants inhale air that is mixed with the radiation components. The major radioactive chemical elements, which are inhaled or enter the body through food consumption include, Iodine-131 and Cesium-137. Iodine-131 has a half-life of eight days and when inhaled, concentrates in the throat. On the other hand, Cesium-137has a half-life of thirty years and can enter the body through the consumption of food, which was grown in contaminated soil. Studies today show that, the main health effect of Chernobyl, is thyroid cancer in children, who were expo sed. This is because of the ingestion of Iodine-131. Today, close to 6000 cases of thyroid cancer are attributed to Chernobyl reactor accident. Although Iodine’s radioactive decays quickly to untraceable levels, it is expected that cases of thyroid cancer will increase. This radiation exposure affected many children because Iodine is greatly absorbed and settles in the thyroid glands of children, who are still in the developmental stage. The emergency

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